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PIFOC Fast Focus Motors in Science and Industry - Faster Positioning
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Technical Papers with Applications of PIFOC Fast Focus Motors - Microscopy, Metrology, Spectroscopy, Photonics

Many advanced applications in metrology, microscopy, spectroscopy, photonics and semiconductor manufacturing require fast focusing, focal plane switching or auto-focusing solutions with nanometer resolution and rapid settling in the millisecond range. PI has several decades of design experience with fast piezo and voice coil motors for precision high-speed motion for auto-focus applications. A few links to applications and puplished papers are listed below.

Imaging cellular network dynamics in three dimensions using fast 3D laser scanning. Features a P-725 PIFOC Lens Objective Scanner
Model for the Interplay of Receptor Recycling and Receptor-Mediated Contact in T Cells. Sergey N. Arkhipov, Ivan V. Maly, Department of Computational Biology, Pittsburgh, PA.
Optical Trapping Paper
Faster Laser/Piezo Autofocus System offers Throughput with Flexibility Time-Resolved Confocal Fluorescence Imaging and Spectrocopy System with Single Molecule Sensitivity and
     Sub-Micrometer Resolution.

Tracking Single Secretory Granules in Live Chromaffin Cells by Evanescent-Field Fluorescence Microscopy
Nucleolar Assembly of the rRNA Processing Machinery in Living Cells. Uses Leica DM RXA microscope, and PIFOC
     Piezoelectric Translator

High Efficiency Beam Splitter for Multifocal Multiphoton Multibeam Two-Photon Laser Scanning Microscope
3D Attitude Control System for Bio-Micromanipulation"
Two-photon microscopy and spectroscopy based on a compact confocal scanning head
Focusing astigmatic Gaussian beams through optical systems with a high numerical aperture
Fission yeast mod5p regulates polarized growth PDF
ssDNA-dependent colocalization of adeno-associated virus Rep and herpes simplex virus ICP8 in nuclear replication domains
Quantitative phase microscopy - a new tool for investigating the structure and function of unstained live cells
Short order nanohole arrays in metals for highly sensitive probing of local indices of refraction as the basis for a highly
     multiplexed biosensor technology.

3D Imaging of Individual Ion Channels in Live Cells at 40nm Resolution
Cold shock and regulation of surface protein trafficking convey sensitization to inducers of stage differentiation in Trypanosoma brucei
FP6-508952 ATOM-3D Advanced Techniques for Optical Manipulation using novel 3D light field synthesis
Fully automatic rapid microscope slide scanner
A functional genomic analysis of cell morphology using RNA interference
Database system for predictive cellular bioinformatics. PIFOC rapid Z-plane auto-focus control.
Probing modes of vesicle docking in neurosecretory cells with evanescent wave microscopy.
Autofocus system for scanning microscopy - Patent 5790710
Wave front engineering for microscopy of living cells with simultaneous optical sectioning, de-convolution and multi trap optical tweezers
New advance in confocal microscopy
Optical tweezers and confocal microscopy for simultaneous three-dimensional manipulation and imaging in concentrated colloidal dispersions
Double-pass Fourier transform imaging spectroscopy
Dynamic localization of membrane proteins in Bacillus subtilis. Image stacks at 20 nm incremental steps were collected using a Pifoc Z-Focus Motor
Low-cost direct writing lithography system for the sub-micron range.
Telomere Attachment, Meiotic Chromosome Condensation, Pairing, and Bouquet Stage Duration Are Modified in Spermatocytes Lacking Axial Elements
Characterizing point spread functions of two-photon fluorescence microscopy in turbid medium. Uses three-dimensional piezoelectrical scanning.
Time-resolved confocal scanning device for ultrasensitive fluorescence detection
Ultracompact autocorrelator for multiphoton microscopy
Combined confocal and wide-field high-resolution cytometry of FISH-stained cells
Performances of High Numerical Aperture Water and Oil Immersion Objective in Deep-Tissue, Multi-Photon Microscopic Imaging of Excised Human Skin
Two-Dimensional Determination of the Cellular Ca2+ Binding in Bovine Chromaffin Cells
Cold shock and regulation of surface protein trafficking convey sensitization to inducers of stage differentiation in Trypanosoma brucei.
Recruitment of NIMA kinase shows that maturation of the S. pombe spindle-pole body occurs over consecutive cell cycles and reveals a role for NIMA in modulating SIN activity.
Optical measurement of the viscoelastic and biochemical responses of living cells to mechanical perturbation
A dual path programmable array microscope (PAM): simultaneous acquisition of conjugate and non-conjugate images
Sphingolipid-Cholesterol Rafts Diffuse as Small Entities in the Plasma Membrane of Mammalian Cells
Extended depth of focus microscopy patent
Single-beam trapping in front of reflective surfaces
Using differential confocal microscopy to detect the phase
Three-dimensional thermal noise imaging
Nanometer resolution of three-dimensional motions using video interference microscopy
Loss of cell volume regulation during metabolic inhibition in renal epithelial cells (A6): role of intracellular pH.
Confocal Raman Microscopy In Chemical And Physical Characterization Of Coated And Printed Papers.
3D Mapping of Individual Ion Channels on Living Cells
3D Reconstruction and Visualisation for Exploration of Human Axillary Lymph Nodes
Wetting and leveling of toner during fusing of electrophotographic prints. Optical profilometry w/ PIFOC piezoelectric transducer captures images w/ a CCD-camera.
Analysis of Depth Profiling Data Obtained by Confocal Raman Microspectroscopy
Periodic Adhesive Fingers between Contacting Cells.
Using differential confocal microscopy to detect the phase transition of lipid vesicle membranes
Reduced intracellular ionic strength as the initial trigger for activation of endothelial volume-regulated anion channels
Intracellular pH shifts in cultured kidney (A6) cells: effects on apical Na+ transport
Endocytosis of a Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored Protein via Clathrin-coated Vesicles, Sorting by Default in
     Endosomes, and Exocytosis via RAB11-positive Carriers

Comparison of phase-contrast and fluorescence digital autofocus for scanning microscopy
Adapting a Compact Confocal Microscope System to a Two-Photon ...
The Rab5 Effector Rabankyrin-5 Regulates and Coordinates Different Endocytic Mechanisms.
Telomere-independent homologue pairing and checkpoint escape of accessory ring chromosomes in male mouse meiosis
In vitro visualization and quantification of oleic acid induced changes in transdermal transport using two-photon fluorescence microscopy
Tracking individual chromosomes with integrated arrays
Automated Multi-view 3D Image Acquisition in Human Genome Research
Mechanical behaviour of human epidermal and dermal layers in vivo
A Fully Automated Microscope Bacterial Enumeration System for Oral Microbial Ecology
Zur Modulation volumenaktivierter Chloridstr in Endothelzellen
Inhibition of Backpropagating Action Potentials in Mitral Cell Secondary Dendrites. Focal plane control with a PIFOC piezo motor.
Physical properties of the plasma membrane studied by local probe techniques
Fluoreszenskorrelationsspektroskopie und Rasterkorrelationsmikroskopie molekularer Prozesse in Nervenzellen
Mechanical Properties of Individual Molecules: An Interface between the Structure and the Function of the molecules
Développement de la microscopie interférométrique pour une meilleure analyse morphologique des couches minces et épaisses des matériaux semiconducteurs et optiques
Asynchronous nuclear division cycles in multinucleated cells